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Treto 1

Erick Treto
Mrs. Rawlings
English CP
Period 3

Thesis Statement:To be a Psychologist you must be able to cope with high stress
situations in which a person is psychologically or emotionally unstable, observe little details that tell a lot about person and most of all be very patient.

I. Description Of Psychology
A.     Psychologists are scientists who study behavior. Their work usually
involves teaching, research, or social service in schools, clinics,
government agencies, and private industry
1.     To learn about behavior, they may conduct tests and laboratory
experiments, record case histories, or take surveys.
2.     Psychology is a broad field with several areas of
specialization.In experimental psychology, for example, psychologists
carry out research projects to develop theories about learning,
motivation, and other aspects of behavior.
B.     A typical day as a clinical or counseling psychologist is difficult
to describe because the work is so varied.
1.     The beginning of the day starts with the psychologist getting the
files ready of the clients being seen that day.Typically a psychologist
will see no more than five clients per day. Psychologists see a variety
of clients ranging from children to adults and couples to families.
2.     Each client brings along their own personal problems and
individual needs.You need to put all the attention as you can to each
patient. A typical day can last up to 12 hours.

II.     Preparation for this career
A.     The requirements to become a psychologist can seem almost
impossible, but the discipline, dedication, and academic requirements
are no more difficult than those of any other profession.
1.     You need good grades most of all and be involved in a club or sport
B.    College track should have a heavy load in psychology courses as well. In fact, many             graduate programs in psychology require an undergraduate major in psychology as             a prerequisite for graduate study in psychology.
C.    To become a successful Psychologist you must at least get a Masters Degree or                 more

III.    Rewards Of This Career
A.    Median annual wages of wage and salary clinical, counseling, and school psycholo                gists were $64,140 in May 2008.


Green Screen Holiday Card
Step 1
Use the internet, scanner, digital camera to
create your background. Designer papers will be supplied
for scanning. The file should be 4 inches by 5
inches at a resolution of 150 pixels per inch. Create a
new document, place your images and arrange them.
Step 2
You will need to be photographed in front of a
green screen. You want to avoid wearing green colored
clothes as this will make it more difficult to make the
separation work.
Step 3
Using Photoshop you will separate yourself
from the green screen background. This is accomplished
by first duplicating the background layer.
– Use the crop tool to crop and size your photo 4
inches wide by 5 inches tall at a resolution of 150
pixels per inch.
– Select/Color Range… and clicking on the green
screen background.
– Use the slider (between 50 and 60) and the eye dropper
with the plus sign you will adjust the image so
that all or most of the green screen is selected. Then
click OK. This will return you to the image with the
selection active.
– Select/Modify/Expand 1 pixel
– Select/Modify/Smooth 1 pixel
– Select/Inverse and add a layer mask.
Step 4
Open the image that you created for the background
and drag it into the portrait file and save it.
Step 5
Open InDesign and make a new letter size
Step 6
Place the final image into the document and
arrange to look like the sample provided to the right.
Step 7
Print and fold into a card.
image goes
4 1/4” 8 1/4”
5 1/2”
10 1/2”
place 1 point lines 1/4” in length
(outside the print area)
Text box for
inside card message
(must be
upside down to
print correctly in
final output




deligent- my little brother is very deligent at getting whatever he wants.

eccentric-the kid down the block is very eccentric.

philantropist- my uncle is a philantropist; he is currently in africa.

esoteric-area 51 is very esoteric.

9/16- Character
i would take the certain 3,000 dollars because if you say you don’t want it you really do so that makes you selfish

Daily vocab 9/16

ASC11-a standard mening representing numeral text as numerical data

backbone-the bck back of a bound book connecting the covers also called spine

backing up-printing the reverse side of a sheet

bad break-in composition starting a page or ending a paragraph

basic size-in infches 25×38 for book papers 1/2 x 28 or 22 1/2x 35 for bristols 25 x 1/2 x30 1/2 for index

daily vocab

copyright-in protection to intelectual property

intelectual property-consist of anything individual

it relates to me because i have the power to do a lot of bad things but i dont do them because its not right.

9/18 Character Writing
problem solver ;everyday of this week we have had to answer a question so that makes me a problem solver.,

9/21-Career, Mrs.Johnson-Dejohn, because i want a job that has something to do with computers

basis weight-

9/22-Career Writing, Mrs.Johnson-Dejohn, because i want a job that has something to do with computer

saying something positive  about you


name ,email ,contact information, purpose for letter, career goals.

vocabulary day 18

contract proof : color proof representing an agreement between the printer and the custom er regarding how the printer product will look

contrast: the tonal gradation between the highlights, middle tones and the shadows in an original or reproduction

copy preparation: direction for, and checking of, desired size and other details for illustrations, and the arrangement into proper position of  various parts of the page to be photographed or electronically  processed for reproduction


my reaction would be that i have to wake up an hour earlier, and waste way more gasoline just to go to school. think it would be pointless and illogical to go to a different school over an hour away because you can live near a school just a block away.

day 19 vocabulary

cover paper-a term applied to a variety of papes used for covers of catalogs, brochures, booklets and similar pieces.

creep-sometimes called a “push out” is it distance margins shift when paper is folded and/or inserted during finishing.the amount oof creep will vary depending on both the number and thickness of the sheets and much can be compressed for during layout and imposition

crop- to eliminate portions of the copy, usually on a photgraph or plate, indicated on the orignal by croparks

day 20 vocabulary

cross direction:in paper,the direction across the grain.paper is weaker and more sensitive to changes in relative humidity in the cross direction than the grain direction

CTP(computer-to- plate):in platemaking ,computer-to-plate systems  ]or platesetters eliminate the need fir having a separate film-to-plate exposure system.

curl:in paper,the distortion of a sheet due to difference in structure or coatings from one side to the other,or to absorption of moisture on an off set press

day 22 vocabulary

deckle edge-the untrimmed feathery edges of paper formed where the pulp flows against the deckle frame

densitometer- in photography, a photoelectric instrument which measures the density of photographic images, or of colors. in printing, a reflection densitometer is used to measure and control the density of color inks on subtrate

density-the degree of darkness (light absorption or opacity) of a photographic image.

descender- that part of a lowercase letter which extends below the main body as in “p”.


desktop publishing-process of composing pages and using a standard computer,off-the-shell software, a device independent page description language like Postscript and outputting them on a printer or imagesetter

diecutting-the process of using sharp steel rules to cut special shapes and labels,boxes, and containers, from printed sheets .diecutting can be done on either flatbed or rotary presses. rotary diecuting is usually done inline with the printing.

die-stamping-a intaglio process for the production of letter heads business cards, etc.,printing from lettering or other design engraved onto copper on steel

vocabulary day 24

diffusion transfer- in photography and platemaking, a system consisting of a photographic emulsion on which a negative is produced, and a receiver sheet on which a positive of the image is transferred during the processing.

digital asset manager(DAM)-also known as media asset management, it is a segment of the content management of digital media and some physical media to enable their efficient storage, retrieval and reuse.

digital color proof- a color proof produced form digital data without the need for separation films.

vocabulary day 25

digital photography-uses a CCD or CMOS sensor in place of  film to capture images electronically. digital photography is used widely by photojournalists, and is being used increasingly by both professionals photographers and consumers as well

digital printing-printing by plateless imaging systems that are imaged by digital data from prepress systems.

dimensional stability- ability to maintain size; resistance of paper of film to dimensional change with change in moisture content or relative humidity.

vocabulary day26

display type-in composition,type set larger than the text

dithering-in computer graphics ,a technique for alternating the values of adjacent dots or pixels to create the effects  of intermediate values. dithering refers to the technique of  making different colors for adjacent dots or pixels to give illusion of a third color.

DOS(Disk Operating System)-in digital imaging, a program containing instructions for a computer to read nd write data to and from a disk. an operating system that instucts a disk-based computing system to manage resources and operate peripheral equipment.

vocabulary day 29

duotone- in photomechanics  a term for a two-color halftone reproduction from one-color photograph

DVD(digital video or versatile disk)- a disk that store audio, video, and computer data at four or more gigabytes per disk

dynamic range- density difference between highlights and shadows of scanned subjects.

vocabulary day 31

Em- in composition a unit of measurement exactly as wide and high as a point size being set. so named because the letter “M” in early fonts was usually cast on a square body

embossed finish0- paper raised or depressed surface resembling wood cloth, leather, or pattern.

embossing- impressing an image in relief to achieve a raised surface; either overprinting or on a blank paper

emulsion side- in photography, the side of the film coated with the silver halide emulsion

En- in composition, one-half the width of an em

vocabulary day 32

flatbed scanner-a device that scans images in a manner similar to a copy machine: the original art is positioned face down on a glass plate.

flush cover- a cover that has been trimmed to the same size as the inside text pages as in this book.

flush left (or right)- in composition, type set to  line up at the left (or right). this page is set left and right

flush paragraph- a paragraph with no indentions.

vocabulary day 33

format- the size, style, type, page, margins, printing requirements of a printed piece

front end system- in electronic publishing, the workstation or group of workstations containing the applications software for preparing pages of type and graphics.

gallery proof- a proof of text copy before being made into pages.

gamma- a measure of contrast in photographic images

vocabulary day 34

gigabyte(GB)- one billion bytes

grain-in paper making, the direction in which most fibers lie which corresponds with direction in which the paper is made on a paper machine

gray balance- the dot values or densities of cyan, magenta, and yellows that produce a neutral gray

gray level- the number of gray values that can be distinguished by a color separation filter

grayscale- a strip of standard gray tones, ranging from white to black, placed at the side of the original copy during photography to measure tonal range and contrast (gamma) obtained.

vocabulary day 35

gripper edge- the leading edge of paper as it passes through a printing press. also, the front edge of lithographic or wraparound plate secured to the front clamp of a plate cylinder.

grippers- in sheeted printing presses, metal fingers the clamp on paper and control its flow as it passes through

GUI(graphical user interface)-pronounced “gooey”, in digital imaging, a technical term for a system that lets users manipulate files by pointing to pictures with a mouse or other pointing device instead of having to type in key commands.

vocabulary day 36

gum arabic- in offset lithography, used in platemaking and on press to protect the non-printing areas of plates

gutter-the blank space or inner margin from printing area to binding

hairline register- register with a +/- 1/2 row of dots.

halftone-the reproduction of continous-tone imges, through a screening process, which converts the image into dots of various sizes and equal spacing between centers, or dots of equal soze with variable spacing between them.

vocabulary day 37

hard proof-a proof on paper or other substrates as distinguished from a soft proof.

hardware-computer and peripherals as distinguished fomr the software which is a program fro operating hardware.

head margin-the white spac above the first line on a page.

hickeys-in offset lithography, spots or imperfections in the printing due to dirt on press, dried skin, paper particles, etc.

vocabulary day 38

high contrast-in photography, a reproduction with high gamma in which the difference in darkness between neighboring areas is greater than in the original.

highlight- the lightest of whitest parts in a photograph representing in a halftone reproduction by the smallest dots or the absence of dots.

holdout- in printing, a property of coated paper with low ink absorption which allows ink to set on the surface with high gloss. papers with too much holdout cause problems with set-off.

vocabulary day 39

HTML(hyper text markup language)-in imaging for World Wide Web, the coding language that is used to create Hyper text documents for use on the World Wide Web.

Hue-in color, the main attribute of a color which distinguishes it from other colors.

Hypertext- links other documents. words or phrases in the document that are so defined that they can be selected and then cause another document to e retrieved, opened, and displayed.

vocabulary day 40

ICC-the Icc was established in 1992 for the purpose of creating and promoting the standardization of an open, vendor-neutral, cross-plate form system fo managing clolr.

imagesetter- in digital imaging, a generic term that applies to different film-output devices for type graphics. the differenc between an imagesette is in the format to the data that has been converted from the discrete-character raster lines to raster data using bitmaps.

imposetter-in digital imaging, an imagesetter cpabl of outputting film flat with 4,8 or more pages in imposed position.

vocabulary day 41

imposition-in image assembly the positioning of pags on a signature so that after printing, folding and cutting. all pages will appear in the proper sequence

ink-jet printing- in digital printing, a plateless printing system that produces images directly on paper from digital data using streams of very fine drops of dyes which are ontrolle by digital signals to produce images on paper

italic- the style of letters that slant, in distinction from upright or roman, letters. used fo emphasis within text

jog-to align sheets of paper into a compact pile

vocabulary day 42

JPEG-was formed to create a standard color and gray scale image compression, JPEG describes a variety if algorithms, each of which is targeted for a type of image application. JPEG is the default format for most digital cameras.

justify- in composition, to space out lines uniformly to line up and left and right

kerning- in typesetting , subtracting space between two characters, making them closer together,

vocabulary day 43

keyboard-the input device to input information directly tto a typesetter, computer, workstation, or as a stand alone unit, to record it on paper or magnetic tape

keyline-in artwork, an outline drawing of finished art to indicate the exact shape, position, and size for such elements as halftone, line sketches, etc.

kilobyte(kb)-1024 bytes, the most common measure to computer file length.

vocabulary day 44

lamination-a plastic film bonded by heat and pressure to a printed sheet for protection and appearance

LAN-communication link in a localized area, such as an office building, office, complex of buildings or campus, with technology hat provides a high-band width, low cost medium to which many computer nodes can be connected.

laser-the laser is an intense light beam with very narrow bandwidth used in digital-imaging devices to produce images by electronic impulses from computer or fracsimile transmission.

vocabulary day 45

layout-the drawing or sketch of a proposed printed piece. in platemaking . a sheet indicating the settings for a step-and-repeat machine.

leaders-in composition, rows of dashes or dots to guide the eye across the page. used ni tabular work, programs, tables of contents, etc.

leadin-in composition,the distance between lines of type measured in points.

vocabulary day 46

LED-that are used in place of lasers for some output systems.

ledger paper-a grade of business paper generally used for keeping records where is it  subjected to appreciable wear to it requires a high degree of durability and performance.

letterspacing-the placing of additional space between each letter of a word.

line copy-any copy suitable for reproduction without using a halftone screen.

vocabulary day 47

logo-the name of a company or product in a special design used as a trademark in advertising

lowercase-the small letters in type, as distinguished from the capital letters.

lpi- acronym for lines per inch

M- abbreviated for mega, which is commonly usd to mean one million. in computer terminology, however, M refers to the number 1,048,576, and is used to specify the amount fo storage available on a disk or in memory. see mega byte. also, abbreviation fro quantity of 1,000

vocabulary day 48

magenta-hue of a subtractive primary and four-color process ink.tit reflects or transmits blue and red light and absorbs green light

magentic storage- any disk , film, tape, drum or cone that is used to store digital information

mechanical-a term fo a camera ready paste up of artwork

MB-one million character codes on the computer. one million bytes or characters, often written MB or Mbyte. a unit of measurement equal to 1,024

kiliobytes, or 1,048,576 bytes

vocabulary day 49

megahertz-frequency equal to 1 million cycles per second measure band width or analog electronic signals

middletones-the tonal range between highlights and shadows of a photographic or reproduction

miore- in color process printing, the undesirable screen pattern caused by incorrect screen angles fo overprinting halftones.

montage- in artwork, several photographs combined to form a composite illustration

motte- the spotty or uneven appearance of printing, mostly in solid areas.

vocabulary day 50

mouse-in computers, a hand held device that moves the cursor on a work station by moving the device in a flat surface

mylar-in offset preparation, a polyester film specially suited for stripping positives because of its mechanical strength and dimensional stability

negative-in photography, film containing an image in which the values if the original are reversed so that the dark area in the subject appear light on the film and vice versa .

vocabulary day 51

network-2 or more computers which are linked and share resources to perform related tasks. group of computers that are connected to each other by communications lines to share information and resources.

newsprint- paper made mostly from groundwood pulp and small amounts of chemical pulp; used for printing newspapers.

non-impact printer- an electronic device like a copier, laser or inkjet printer that creates images on a surface without contacting it

vocabulary day 52

OCR- an electronic means of scanning copy, and converting the scanned image to an electronic equivalent. the ability to “read” printed text and convert it to digitalized files that can be saved on disk and edited as a text file.

off-press proofs-proofs made by photo mechanical or digital means in less time at lower cost than press proofs

offset-see off-set. in printing, the processof using an intermediate blanket cylinderto transfer an image carrier to the substrate. short for offset lithography.

vocabulary day 53

PDL-in digital prepress, a computer language designed for describing how type and graphic elements should be produced by output devices

page makeup- in stripping assembly of all the elements to make up a page. in digital imaging, the electronic assembly of page elements to compose a complete page with all the elements in place on a video display terminal and on film or plate.

pagination- in computerized typesetting, the process of performing a age makeup aoutomatically

palette- in computers , the collection of colors or shades available to a graphic system or program.

vocabulary day 54

panchromatic-photographic film sensitive to all visible colors

PC-acronym for personal computer

PDF- PDF is universal electronic file format, modeled after the PostScript language and is device and resolution-independent documents in PDF format can be viewed, navigated and printed from any computer regardless of the fonts or software programs used to create the original

perfecting pres- a printing press that prints both sides of the paper in one pass through the press

vocabulary day 56

lowercase- small letters in a font

perfecting press-a printing press that prints both sides of a paper

mouse- a device that is inserted to allow movement in the computer

vocabulary day 58

photopolymer coating: in photomechanics, a plate coating consisting of compounds which polymerize on exposure to produce tough abrasion-resistant plates capable of long runs especially when baked in an oven after processing

plca: printer’s unit of measurement used principally in typesetting one pica equals approximately 1/6 of inch

PICT: in digital imaging, a standard data format with which most Macintosh illustrations are enoded

pigment: in printing inks, the fine solid particles used to give inks color, transparency, or opacity.

vocabulary day 60

point: printers unit of measurement, used principally for designating type sizes. there are 12 points to a pica; approximately 72 points to an inch

porosity: the property of proper  that allows the permeation of air, an important factor in penetration.

portrait:in photography, vertical orientation of a format as oposed to landscape/ horizontal orientation.

postscript:a page description language developed by Adobe Systems inc. to describe an image for printing. it handles both text and graphics. a postscript file is a purely text-based description of a page. preflight: in digital prepress, the test used to evaluate or analyze every component need to produce a printing job.

preflight confirms the type of disk being submitted, the color gamut, color breaks, and any art required plus layout files, screen fonts, printer fonts, EPS or TIFF files, laser proofs, page sizes, printer driver, cropmarks, etc.

vocabulary day 62

Presensitized plate: In photomechanics, a metal, film or paper base plate that has been precoated with a light-sensitive coating.

Print quality: A term describing the visual impression of a printed piece. In paper, the properties of the paper that affects its appearance and quality of reproduction.

Process colors: In printing, the subtractive primaries: yellow, magenta, and cyan plus black in four-color process printing.

Process lens: A highly corrected photographic lens with a flat field for graphic arts line, halftone and color photography.

vocabulary day 63

Ragged left: In typesetting, type that is justified on the right margin and ragged on the left.

Ragged right: In typesetting, type that is justified on the left margin and ragged on the right.

Raster image processor (RIP): In digital imaging, a combination of computer software and hardware that controls the printing process by calculating the bitmaps of images and instructing a printing device to create the images. Most PostScript systems use a hardware RIP built into the printer

vocabulary day 64

Register: In printing, fitting of two or more printing images in exact alignment with each otherRegister marks: Crosses or other targets applies to original copy prior to photography. Used for positioning films in register, or for register of two or more colors in process printingRelative humidity (RH): The amount of water vapor present in the atmosphere expressed as a percentage or the maximum that could be present at the same temperature.

vocabulary day 65

Resolution: Ability of an input device to record, or an output device to reproduce the fine detail of an image. There is a difference between resolution and addressability or sampling rate.Resolution concerns how closely spots can be placed, and also whether gray levels can be distinguished. Resolution for output devices depends on addressability, bit-depth, mark size and color.

RGB (Red, Green, Blue): The primary additive colors used in display devices and scanners. Commonly used-to refer to the color space, mixing system or monitor in color computer graphics.

Right-angle fold: In binding, a term used for two or more folds that are at 90 degree angles to each other.

vocabulary day 66

Rub-proof: In printing, an ink that has reached maximum dryness and does not mar with normal abrasion.

Saddle stitch: In binding, to fasten a booklet by writing it through the middle fold of the sheets. Also called saddle wire.

Safelight: In photography, the special darkroom lamp used for illumination without fogging sensitized materials.

Scaling: Determining the proper size of an image to be reduced or enlarged to fit an area.

Scanner: An electronic device used in the making of color and tone-corrected separations of image.

vocabulary day 67

Screen angles: In color reproduction, angles at which the halftone screens are placed in relation to one another, to avoid undesirable moire patterns. A set of angles often used is: black 45 degrees, magenta 75 degrees, yellow 90 degrees, cyan 105 degrees.

Screened print: In photography, a print with a halftone screen made from a halftone negative or by difusion transfer.

Screen ruling: The number of lines or dots per inch on a halftone screen.

vocabulary day 68

SCSI:pronounced “skuzzy” SCSI is an interface used to connect computers to peripherals. an industry-standard interface for hard drives and other storage devices that allows for very fast transfers of information.

serif-the short cross lines at the ends of the main strokes

server- a file server provides file data interchange between compatible peripherals devices on a local area network. servers are indentified by the type or resource they provide (e.g., dis server. file server, printer server,communications server

vocabulary day 69

Set-off: In presswork, when the ink of a printer sheet rubs off or marks the next sheet as it is being delivered. Also called offset.

SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language): One of the newer languages for marking text for a variety of purposes, including typesetting and disk publishing. A well-designed SGML scheme enables the publisher to mark text just once for multiple uses

vocabulary day 70

shadow:the darkest part in a photography,represented in a halftone by the largest dots

sharpen:to decrease in color strength, as halftone dots become smaller, opposite of dot.

vocabulary day 71

Side guide: On sheetfed presses, a guide on hte feed board to position the sheet sideways as it feeds into the front guides before entering the impression cylinder.

Signature: In printing and binding, the name given to a printed sheet after it has been folded.

Small caps: An alphabet of SMALL CAPITAL LETTERS available in most roman typefaces approximately the size of lowercase letters. Used in combination with larger capital letters.

vocabulary day 72

Spectrophotometer: Instrument for measure color for CIE color spaces. It is more accurate than most color colorimeters.

Spectrum: The complete range of colors in the rainbow, from short wavelengths (blue) to long wavelengths (red).

Spiral binding: A book bound with wires in spiral form inserted through holes punches along the binding side.

Step-and-repeat: In photomechanics, the procedure of multiple exposure using the same image by stepping it in position according to the predetermined layout or program.

vocabulary day 73

Stet: A proofreader’s mark, written in the margin, signifying that copy marked for corrections should remain as it was.

Stochastic screening: A digital screen process that converts images into very small dots (14-40 microns) of equal size and variable spacing. Second order screened images have variable size dots and variable spacing. Also called Frequency Modulated (FM) screening.

Stock: Paper or other material to be printed

vocabulary day 74

Stock photography: Used widely by creative professionals in need of ready-made images that illustrate a specific lifestyle, scene, mood, or process. Some stock images are royalty-free, but most carry a fee based on usage.

Stone: In lithography, formerly used as the plate material and presently used by artists as an art medium. In letterpress, the bed on which metal type is leveled and locked up.

vocabulary day 75

Strike-on composition or cold type: Type set on typewriter composing machines.

Stripping: In image assembly, the positioning of negative (or positives) on a flat to compose a page or layout for platemaking. In printing, ink stripping on ink rollers prevented by plastic or copper coated steel rollers in the ink roller train.

vocabulary day 76

Substance: The weight in pounds of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to the standard size (17″ x 22″) for business papers (bond and ledger): e.g., 20 pounds. Similar to basis weight of other grades of paper.

Substrate: Any material that can be printed on, such as paper, plastic and fabric.

vocabulary day 77

Subtractive primaries: yellow, magenta and cyan, the hues used for process color printing inks.

Sulphate pulp: Paper pulp made from wood chips cooked under pressure in a solution of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) and sodium sulphide. Known as kraft

vocabulary day 78

Supercalendar: In papermaking, a calendar stack, separate from the papermaking machine, with alternate metal and resilient rolls, used to produce a high finish on paper.

Supercell: In digital halftone imaging, a combination of subgroups of halftone dots that are handled as a single group.

vocabulary day 79

Surprint: In photomechanics, exposure from a second neative or flat superimposed on an exposed image of a previous negative or flat.

Tack: In printing inks, the property of cohesion between particles; the separation force of ink needed for proper transfer and trapping on multicolor presses. A tacky ink has high separation forces and can cause surface picking or splitting of weak papers.

vocabulary day 80

Tagged image file format (TIFF): A file format for graphics suited for representing scanned images and other large bitmaps. TIFF is a neutral format designed for compatibility with all applications. TIFF was created specifically for storing gray scale images, and it is the standard format for scanned images such as photographs.

Tetrabyte: One trillion bytes

vocabulary day 81

Text: the body matter of a page or book, as distinguished from the headings.

Unit: In multicolor presses. refers to the combination of inking, plate and impression operations to print each color. A 4-color press has four printing units each with its own inking, plate and impression fnctions.

vocabulary day 84

Historical Terms archival: Term loosely used to refer to material that can be used without side effects in the conservation or care of important artifacts.

Archival Printing: Techniques for printing books, documents, and records intended to last 150 years or more.

Autochrome: The first commercially successful screen plate for color photography, introduced in 1904 by Auguste and Louis Luminere in Lyons, France

vocabulary day 85

Aniline Printing: An early name for rotary letterpress printing with rubber plates and fluid, fast-drying inks that contained dyes derived from aniline oils.

Beard: In hot-metal typesetting, the beveled space below the printing surface of a type letter.

Block Printing: Printing from wooden or linoleum blocks with the printing image cut in relief. Used before the invention of movable type, and now limited to special art reproductions, and decorative wallpaper and fabric printing.

vocabulary day 86

Brayer: A small hand roller used to distribute ink, on a test slab or proof press.

California job case: An open box with compartments in which individual type characters are separated for the hand compositor.

Calotype: The earliest process of making photographic negatives and prints on sensitized paper. Alternative term: talbottype.

vocabulary day 87

Chromolithography: Obsolete lithographic color printing process in whihc a separate litho stone is required to print each color.

Composing machines: Typesetting machines used to cast and compose type in justified lines. Intertype, Linotype, and Monotype machines are some examples.

Composing room: the area in a printing plant where type is set.

vocabulary day 89

counter:The white space enclosed by a letterform, whether wholly enclosed or partially e.g., as seen with d or o or with c or m.

Daguerreotype: A positive image produced on a silver-coated copper plate. The first practical photographic process, it was invented by Louis J.M. Draguerre in 1839. The image is developed by exposing the plate to metallic mercury vapors.

vocabulary day 90

Electrotype: A duplicate relief printing plate that is made by molding a sheet of hot plastic or wax mold against the original relief plate, electroplating the mold with a coating of copper or nickel, shaping the plate into a cylinder, and backing it with a plastic, wood, or metal support material.

Graphic communications: Allied industries, including printing, publishing, advertising, and design, that participate in the production and dissemination of text and images by printed or electronic means.

vocabulary day 93

Laserwriter, Apple: The first desktop laser printer to contain PostScript, introduced in 1985 by Apple.

Linecasting machine: A keyboard or tape-controlled hot-metal device that sets complete liens of type.

vocabulary day 94

Litho stone: A Bavarian limestone. A flat porous stone used as a lithographic image carrier by early lithographers and by contemporary printmakers.

Magazine: In hot-metal typography, the storage compartments in the circulation system of the character matrices.

vocabulary day 96

Rubel, Ira: The man credited with the invention of the offset-lithographic press. He designed the first press with a blanket cylinder in 1905.

Sterotype: Early method of imaging cylinders for letterpress web presses. Involved pressing a flat metal relief plate again a papier-mache mold (called a “flong”). The mold was wrapped inside a cylindrical carrier, and molten metal was poured into the mold to form the relief cylinder.

vocabulary day 98

Abrasion resistance: The resistance of a paper of paperboard surface to being worn down, roughened, or disrupted by sliding frictional contact with other surfaces, as measured by the weight loss of a weighed test sample.

Accelerator: (1)An alkali, or base, used to activate a developing agent to make it more effective.   (2) A substance added, or method used, to hasten the natural process or progress of an event or series of events, such as ink drying

vocabulary day 99

Acetone: (1) a solvent used in gravure inks to accelerate drying. (2) An ingredient in many lacquer thinner compounds and adhering liquids that is used to remove lacqueradhered knife-cut stencils and lacquer blockouts from screen printing fabrics

Addition agent: In gravure, a material added in small quantities to planting solution for the purpose of modifying the character of a deposit.

vocabulary day 100

Adhestion: The state in which two surfaces are held together by interfacial forces; measure of the strength with which one material sticks to another.

Blanket Wash: An oil-based solvent used for cleaning the blanket and rollers on the press.

vocabulary day 101

Body agent: A material added to an ink to increase its viscosity and drying time.

China clay: A natural white mineral pigment-hydrated aluminum silica-used in paper coatings and as an ink extender. Alternative term: kaolin.

vocabulary day 102

Coating mottle: A small variation in gloss that can be detected on a coated, calendered sheet by viewing it at an angle to check for specular reflection from the surface.

Detergent resistance: How well and applied ink or coating withstands the effects of chemicals.

vocabulary day 104

Dye emulsions: Screen printing inks in which dyes (liquids suspended in a viscous medium), rather than pigments (powders), contribute the color effects.

Extender: (1) A transparent or white pigment or binder used to adjust the working properties and reduce the color strength of a printing ink without affecting its hue.

(2) The parts of the letter form that extend below the baseline, e.g., p,q.

vocabulary day 106

brasion Resistance: The resistance of a paper or paperboard surface to being worn down, roughened, or disrupted by sliding frictional contact with other surfaces, as measured by the weight loss of a weighed test sample. Accelerator: (1) An alkali, or base, used to activate a developing agent to make it more effective (2) A substance added, or a method used, to hasten the natural process or progress of an event or series of events, such as ink drying.

vocabulary day 107

Flushed Pigment: The result when a wet pigment is processed in a mixer along with a selected varnish, the pigment becoming preferentially wet with the varnish and transferring from the water to the varnish.

Heavy Bodied: Inks with a high viscosity or stiff consistency.

vocabulary day 108

Indicator: A dye that changes in color with shifts in pH.

Lake: An ink colorant formed when a soluble dye is converted into a pigment in the presence of an inorganic white base such as alumina hydrate or white gloss.

vocabulary day 109

Organic Dye: A general classification of pigments that are carbon-based, as opposed to metallic pigments.

Oxidation: A slow chemical reaction of the reactive drying oil of printing ink with oxygen to produce a dry ink film.

vocabulary day 113

top drier: a substance , typically the heavy metal cobalt, that is mixed with lithography ink to speed the oxidation(hardening) of the ink film surface

vehicle:a liquid composed of a varnish, waxes, driers, and other additives that carries the ink colorant (pigment), controls the flow of he ink or varnish on the press, and, after drying, binds the pigment to the substrate.

vocabulary day 114

Viscoelastic: A material, such as an offset printing ink, that behaves as both a fluid and an elastic solid.

Zahn Cup: Measurement device for measuring the viscosity of a liquid based on the speed by which the liquid passes through the cup

vocabulary day

ID-MH: One-dimensional modified Huffman.

3GL: Third-generation (computer) Ianguage.

AAL: ATM adaption layer.

AAUI: Apple auxiliary unit interace.

vocabulary day 119

BACP: Bandwidth allocation control protocol

BACT: Best achievable control technology

BASIC: Beginner’s all-purpose symbolic instruction code

BER: Bit error rate

vocabulary day 120

C2S: Paper coated on both sides

CAB-EDI: Cyber-assisted business electronic data interchange

CALS: (1) computer-aided acquisition and logistic support (2) Continuous acquisition and lifecycle support

CAN: Cancel character

vocabulary day 122

E-To-B: Emulsion-to-base

EBCDIC: Extended binary coded decimal interchange code

ECF: Elemental chlorine-free (paper)

EMI/RFI: Electromagnetic interference/radio frequency interference

vocabulary day 123

EMX: Enterprise messaging exchange

FIFO: First in, first out

FSI: Free-standing insert

GIBR: Graphics industry bar code

GIGO: Garbage in, garbage out

vocabulary day 124

GPIO: General-purpose input output

GUID: Global universal identification

HeNeCs: Helium neon laser contact screen

HSV: Hue, saturation, and value

I-BASIC: Internet beginners all-purpose symbolic instruction code

vocabulary day 115

IDDE: Integrated development and debugging environment

IMC: Image color matching

IOC: ISDN ordering code

ISBN: International standard book number

vocabulary day 126

JOE: Java objects everywhere

LCS: Liquid-crystal shutter

LSL: Link support layer

LUT: Look-up table

vocabulary day 127

MAC: (1) Medium-access control (2) Media access control (3) Metropolitan area exchange (4) Multiply accumulate

MC: Microchannel

MIPS: Million instructions per second

MMCX: Multimedia communications exchange server

vocabulary day 128

MP: Multilink point-to-point protocol

MTBF: Mean time between failures

NAK: Negative acknowledge

NCR: No-carbon-required paper

ODBC: Open database connectivity

ODG: Optical dot gain

vocabulary day 129

PDG: Physical dot gain

pH: Potential of hydrogen

PLAR: Private-line auto ringdown

vocabulary day 130

PNP: Plug and play

PPTOP: Point-to-point tunneling protocol

QWERTY: Standard keyboard layout

RLP: Radio link protocol

SCSI: Small computer systems interface

SMS: (1) Short message service;  (2) Storage management services

vocabulary day 131

TCF: Totally chlorine free (paper)

TMP: Thermomechanical paper pulp

USB: Universal serial bus

VON: Voice on/over the Net

vocabulary day 132

VXD: Virtual device driver

WORM: Write once, read many

ZM: Zoomed video

vocabulary day 133

Agate: (1) Body type measuring approximately 5 1/2 points. The agate is frequently used to specify the depth of newspaper advertising. Fourteen agate lines are equivalent to one column inch. (2) A polished stone tool used in bookbinding to burnish the edges of books after applying metal leaf.

Aliasing: A jagged or “staircase” effect in a raster image, caused by an insufficient number of image samples. See also: anti-aliasing.

vocabulary day 134

Alley: The spaces between tabular copy. It is occasionally referred to as column margins or columns. See also: gutter.

Anti-Aliasing: In computer graphics, a procedure whereby pixels at the edge of a diagonal or curved surface are averaged with those of the background in order to produce a smoother edge and minimize the effect of unwanted patterns (jaggies). Alternative term: dithering. See also: aliasing.

vocabulary day 135

Art Assembly: Preparing comprehensives and keylines with black-and-white stats, or color images, and type.

Back matter: Material printed at the end of a book, including the appendix, addenda, glossary, index, and bibliography. Alternative term: end matter.

vocabulary day136

Block colores: Colors printed solid, i.e., with near identical opacity and density over the entire surface and without gradations, tints, or shading.

Bodyline Capacity: The maximum number of lines of copy that can be contained on a page.

vocabulary day 137

Calligraphy: Various styles of elegant handwriting, many based on classic examples from the fourteenth through the eighteenth centuries.

Color Density: The opacity, purity, or brilliance of a color.

vocabulary day 140

Exposure Setting: The lens opening and shutter speed selected to expose the film.

Fit: (1) A term used to describe the horizontal spacing or relationship between two or more characters. Fit can be altered by kerning or modifying the horizontal width (set width) assigned to characters. Evaluating fit is generally subjective. (2) In regard to press work, see image fit.

vocabulary day 141

Fold Marks; Guides on the pasteup that indicates where a printed piece will be creased.

Greeked Text: Simulated (fake) text used to represent type, e.g., the use of gray bars or “dummy” characters to represent text in a layout so that the design of the document will be emphasized rather than its content.

vocabulary day 142

Gutter: (1) A gutter is a standard size gap that separates a design or text area into columns. (2) The inside margin between facing pages, or the margin athe the binding edge. Alternative terms: gutter margin; back margin.

Hairline: (1) The secondary stroke of a letter, usually thinner than the stem. (2) The thinnest line that can be reproduced by an output device.

vocabulary day 143

Illustration Program: A program used to create object oriented graphics. We use Illustrator CS2 and CS4 in Graphics Arts at Diamond Ranch High School.

Incident Light: Rays of light that travel fro ma light source to an object.

vocabulary day 144

Illustration Program: Aindia ink A dense black color used in the preparation of artwork and mechanical drawings.

Laser typesetting: A technique whereby the light source directly imprints images onto paper or film.

vocabulary day 145

Ligature:Two or more characters that are specially modified in design to be cast or exposed together as one unit, frequently with connecting strokes. Some examples include “fi” and “fl.”

Manuscript: The original text copy submitted to the typesetter electronically, on a computer disk, or in typewritten form.

vocabulary day 147

Margin: Standard areas surrouonding the image part of a page that extend from the edge of the page to the image area.

Master Page: The page in a computer pagination program on which all headers, rules, and other elements that will repeat on all of the pages of a document are set.

vocabulary day 148

matrix: (1) An arrangement of typesetting characters in a case or font grid. (2) In hot-metal typesetting, the molds from which relief metal type characters are formed by pouring or pressing hot metal. (3) In flexogrphic platemaking, the mold cast from a metal engraving into thermoseting materials from which a rubber flexo plate is shaped.

Mount: (1) The secure the page elements to a layout board. (2) To fasten the plate or blanket to offset press. (3) The wood or metal base on which a letterpress printing plate is permanently fastened for use on a press.

vocabulary day 149

Original: Any artwork, mechanical, photograph, object, or drawing that is submitted to be reproduced in the photomechanical process.

Panel Printing: A solid block of color, ink or foil, which is used as a background for other printed or stamped material and sometimes surrounded by a decorative border.

vocabulary day 155

PI Font: A collection of miscellaneous type characters, mathematical symbols, accent marks, and technical symbols that are not part of a normal type font.

Run Down: A proofreading term meaning to break or end a line as noted, forcing the remainder down to the next line.

vocabulary day 156

Stroke: (1) Any part of a character that can be drawn with one movement. (2) The act of cutting in changes or corrections to the original, standing film or paper.

Tertiary Those colors obtained by mixing two secondary colors.

vocabulary day 157

Tone: The degree of lightness or darkness in any given area of a print. Alternative term: tone value.

Typography: The art and craft of creating and/or setting type professionally.

vocabulary day 158

Acid: (1) In lithography, a dampening solution ingredient that enables gum arabic to cling to the nonimage areas of the plate. (2) Perchlorige of iron used to etch gravure cylinders. Alternative term: etchant.

Antifoaming Agent: An additive that disperses bubbles that may form in offset dampening solution or screen printing inks during printing, Antifoaming agents are also added to plate developers and processors.

vocabulary day 160

Backlap: In screen printing, a very heavy, rough application of color on one side of a print, which is caused by color pulling through the screen behind the squeegee at the beginning of the printing stroke.

Bounce: In lithography, an abnormal reaction to compression, which results in erratic rotational movement of the press cylinders, causing missed or imperfect impressions.

vocabulary day 164

Cobwebbing: (1) Fine filaments of ink that appear betweeen the screen fabric and the substrate during screen printing. (2) In gravure, a filmy buildup of dried ink on the doctor blade, the ends of impression roll, or printing cylinder

Comber: A press or folder component that fans the sheets to improve separation and feeding accuracy.

vocabulary day 165

Common-Impression Press: A flexo or sheetfed or web offset press that has one large-drum impression cylinder, which holds or supports the substrate, and several color stations (plate/blanket/\ cylinder pairs) positioned around it.

Cutoff Length: (1) The distance between corresponding points of repeated images on a web. (2) The circumference of the plate cylinder.

vocabulary day 166

Dampeners: Paper, cloth, or rubber-covered rollers that distribute water to the printing plate in the lithographic process.

Discharge printing: Pattern-printing darkly dyed textile substrates with a color-removing chemical to produce a design into which lighter hues may be printed.

vocabulary day 168

Eccentricity: A roller or cylinder that does not rotate in a true concentric circle in relation to its axis. Alternative terms: off center; out-of-round

Flagging: (1) Indicating a web splice so that the spliced product can be removed from the press folder and discarded. (2) Marking printed matter to indicate a change or correction. (3) Inserting small strips of paper into a skid of press sheets as needed to indicate segments of defective printed sheets.

vocabulary day 169

Front Stops: A series of devices that halt the forward movement of a press sheet on the feedboard. The front stops square the sheet in relation to the printing cyliners and determines the print margin. The front stops are part of the three-point register system. Alternative term: front guides.

Gear Streaks: Parallel streaks appearing across the printed sheet at the same interval as gear teeth on a cylinder

vocabulary day 170

Grippers Edge: On a sheetfed press, the leading edge of the paper that rests at the head stops and is grabbed by mechanical fingers known as grippers. The press operator typiclly marks the gripper edge with an “XXX” before sending the job to the binding and finishing area.

Hickey-Picking Roller: A roller that has synthetic fibers embedded in its surface, to help it remove hickeys from the surface of an offset printing late or to fill in the white ring on the plate surface. The roller replaces one of the ink form rollers.

vocabulary day 171

Incline Press: A screen printing press in which the screen maintains a position parallel to the printing bed, but recedes diagonally during the feed/take-off cycle.

Leafing: The phenomena that occurs when metal flakes in metallic inks float to the surface of the ink, giving it a particular luster.

vocabulary day 172

Metallic Ink: An ink with fine aluminum, bronze, or copper powders in its pigment.

metering Nip: The line of contact between two rollers in the dampening system of a lithographic press.

vocabulary day 173

Molleton: A thick coton fabric similar to flannel. It has a long nap and is used to cover form rollers in conventional lithographic dampening.

vocabulary day 174

Oscillator: A driven inking or dampening roller that not only rotates but also moves from side to side, distributing and smoothing out the ink film and erasing image patterns from the form roller. Alternative terms: oscillating drum, oscillating roller, or vibrator.

Overpacking: Packing the plate or blanker to a level that is excessively above the lever of the cylinder bearer.

vocabulary day 175

Palette Knife: A small, flexible blade used to mix small batches of ink on a slab.

Perfecting: Printing both sides of a sheet in the same pass through the press. In xerography, perfecting is called duplexing.

Vocabulary Day 176

Piling Ghosting: A ghost of an image that appears on the reverse side of coated paper printed on a blanketto-blanket press (usually a web offset press) caused by the uneven pressure that has resulted from piling on the blanket adjacent to the image.

Plate Clamp: A device that grips the lead and tail edges of a printing plate and pulls it tight against the cylinder body. The position of the clamps is releveant to the image position or register of the image in relation to the other printing plates and the image’s squareness on the sheet.