Substance: The weight in pounds of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to the standard size (17″ x 22″) for business papers (bond and ledger): e.g., 20 pounds. Similar to basis weight of other grades of paper.
Substrate: Any material that can be printed on, such as paper, plastic and fabric.
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Subtractive primaries: yellow, magenta and cyan, the hues used for process color printing inks.
Sulphate pulp: Paper pulp made from wood chips cooked under pressure in a solution of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) and sodium sulphide. Known as kraft
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Supercalendar: In papermaking, a calendar stack, separate from the papermaking machine, with alternate metal and resilient rolls, used to produce a high finish on paper.
Supercell: In digital halftone imaging, a combination of subgroups of halftone dots that are handled as a single group.
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Surprint: In photomechanics, exposure from a second neative or flat superimposed on an exposed image of a previous negative or flat.
Tack: In printing inks, the property of cohesion between particles; the separation force of ink needed for proper transfer and trapping on multicolor presses. A tacky ink has high separation forces and can cause surface picking or splitting of weak papers.
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Tagged image file format (TIFF): A file format for graphics suited for representing scanned images and other large bitmaps. TIFF is a neutral format designed for compatibility with all applications. TIFF was created specifically for storing gray scale images, and it is the standard format for scanned images such as photographs.
Tetrabyte: One trillion bytes
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Text: the body matter of a page or book, as distinguished from the headings.
Unit: In multicolor presses. refers to the combination of inking, plate and impression operations to print each color. A 4-color press has four printing units each with its own inking, plate and impression fnctions.
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Historical Terms archival: Term loosely used to refer to material that can be used without side effects in the conservation or care of important artifacts.
Archival Printing: Techniques for printing books, documents, and records intended to last 150 years or more.
Autochrome: The first commercially successful screen plate for color photography, introduced in 1904 by Auguste and Louis Luminere in Lyons, France
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Aniline Printing: An early name for rotary letterpress printing with rubber plates and fluid, fast-drying inks that contained dyes derived from aniline oils.
Beard: In hot-metal typesetting, the beveled space below the printing surface of a type letter.
Block Printing: Printing from wooden or linoleum blocks with the printing image cut in relief. Used before the invention of movable type, and now limited to special art reproductions, and decorative wallpaper and fabric printing.
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Brayer: A small hand roller used to distribute ink, on a test slab or proof press.
California job case: An open box with compartments in which individual type characters are separated for the hand compositor.
Calotype: The earliest process of making photographic negatives and prints on sensitized paper. Alternative term: talbottype.
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Chromolithography: Obsolete lithographic color printing process in whihc a separate litho stone is required to print each color.
Composing machines: Typesetting machines used to cast and compose type in justified lines. Intertype, Linotype, and Monotype machines are some examples.
Composing room: the area in a printing plant where type is set.
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counter:The white space enclosed by a letterform, whether wholly enclosed or partially e.g., as seen with d or o or with c or m.
Daguerreotype: A positive image produced on a silver-coated copper plate. The first practical photographic process, it was invented by Louis J.M. Draguerre in 1839. The image is developed by exposing the plate to metallic mercury vapors.
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Electrotype: A duplicate relief printing plate that is made by molding a sheet of hot plastic or wax mold against the original relief plate, electroplating the mold with a coating of copper or nickel, shaping the plate into a cylinder, and backing it with a plastic, wood, or metal support material.
Graphic communications: Allied industries, including printing, publishing, advertising, and design, that participate in the production and dissemination of text and images by printed or electronic means.
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Laserwriter, Apple: The first desktop laser printer to contain PostScript, introduced in 1985 by Apple.
Linecasting machine: A keyboard or tape-controlled hot-metal device that sets complete liens of type.
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Litho stone: A Bavarian limestone. A flat porous stone used as a lithographic image carrier by early lithographers and by contemporary printmakers.
Magazine: In hot-metal typography, the storage compartments in the circulation system of the character matrices.
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Rubel, Ira: The man credited with the invention of the offset-lithographic press. He designed the first press with a blanket cylinder in 1905.
Sterotype: Early method of imaging cylinders for letterpress web presses. Involved pressing a flat metal relief plate again a papier-mache mold (called a “flong”). The mold was wrapped inside a cylindrical carrier, and molten metal was poured into the mold to form the relief cylinder.
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Abrasion resistance: The resistance of a paper of paperboard surface to being worn down, roughened, or disrupted by sliding frictional contact with other surfaces, as measured by the weight loss of a weighed test sample.
Accelerator: (1)An alkali, or base, used to activate a developing agent to make it more effective. (2) A substance added, or method used, to hasten the natural process or progress of an event or series of events, such as ink drying
vocabulary day 99
Acetone: (1) a solvent used in gravure inks to accelerate drying. (2) An ingredient in many lacquer thinner compounds and adhering liquids that is used to remove lacqueradhered knife-cut stencils and lacquer blockouts from screen printing fabrics
Addition agent: In gravure, a material added in small quantities to planting solution for the purpose of modifying the character of a deposit.
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Adhestion: The state in which two surfaces are held together by interfacial forces; measure of the strength with which one material sticks to another.
Blanket Wash: An oil-based solvent used for cleaning the blanket and rollers on the press.
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Body agent: A material added to an ink to increase its viscosity and drying time.
China clay: A natural white mineral pigment-hydrated aluminum silica-used in paper coatings and as an ink extender. Alternative term: kaolin.
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Coating mottle: A small variation in gloss that can be detected on a coated, calendered sheet by viewing it at an angle to check for specular reflection from the surface.
Detergent resistance: How well and applied ink or coating withstands the effects of chemicals.
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Dye emulsions: Screen printing inks in which dyes (liquids suspended in a viscous medium), rather than pigments (powders), contribute the color effects.
Extender: (1) A transparent or white pigment or binder used to adjust the working properties and reduce the color strength of a printing ink without affecting its hue.
(2) The parts of the letter form that extend below the baseline, e.g., p,q.
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brasion Resistance: The resistance of a paper or paperboard surface to being worn down, roughened, or disrupted by sliding frictional contact with other surfaces, as measured by the weight loss of a weighed test sample. Accelerator: (1) An alkali, or base, used to activate a developing agent to make it more effective (2) A substance added, or a method used, to hasten the natural process or progress of an event or series of events, such as ink drying.
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Flushed Pigment: The result when a wet pigment is processed in a mixer along with a selected varnish, the pigment becoming preferentially wet with the varnish and transferring from the water to the varnish.
Heavy Bodied: Inks with a high viscosity or stiff consistency.
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Indicator: A dye that changes in color with shifts in pH.
Lake: An ink colorant formed when a soluble dye is converted into a pigment in the presence of an inorganic white base such as alumina hydrate or white gloss.
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Organic Dye: A general classification of pigments that are carbon-based, as opposed to metallic pigments.
Oxidation: A slow chemical reaction of the reactive drying oil of printing ink with oxygen to produce a dry ink film.
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top drier: a substance , typically the heavy metal cobalt, that is mixed with lithography ink to speed the oxidation(hardening) of the ink film surface
vehicle:a liquid composed of a varnish, waxes, driers, and other additives that carries the ink colorant (pigment), controls the flow of he ink or varnish on the press, and, after drying, binds the pigment to the substrate.
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Viscoelastic: A material, such as an offset printing ink, that behaves as both a fluid and an elastic solid.
Zahn Cup: Measurement device for measuring the viscosity of a liquid based on the speed by which the liquid passes through the cup
ID-MH: One-dimensional modified Huffman.
3GL: Third-generation (computer) Ianguage.
AAL: ATM adaption layer.
AAUI: Apple auxiliary unit interace.
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BACP: Bandwidth allocation control protocol
BACT: Best achievable control technology
BASIC: Beginner’s all-purpose symbolic instruction code
BER: Bit error rate
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C2S: Paper coated on both sides
CAB-EDI: Cyber-assisted business electronic data interchange
CALS: (1) computer-aided acquisition and logistic support (2) Continuous acquisition and lifecycle support
CAN: Cancel character
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EBCDIC: Extended binary coded decimal interchange code
ECF: Elemental chlorine-free (paper)
EMI/RFI: Electromagnetic interference/radio frequency interference
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EMX: Enterprise messaging exchange
FIFO: First in, first out
FSI: Free-standing insert
GIBR: Graphics industry bar code
GIGO: Garbage in, garbage out
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GPIO: General-purpose input output
GUID: Global universal identification
HeNeCs: Helium neon laser contact screen
HSV: Hue, saturation, and value
I-BASIC: Internet beginners all-purpose symbolic instruction code
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IDDE: Integrated development and debugging environment
IMC: Image color matching
IOC: ISDN ordering code
ISBN: International standard book number
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JOE: Java objects everywhere
LCS: Liquid-crystal shutter
LSL: Link support layer
LUT: Look-up table
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MAC: (1) Medium-access control (2) Media access control (3) Metropolitan area exchange (4) Multiply accumulate
MIPS: Million instructions per second
MMCX: Multimedia communications exchange server
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MP: Multilink point-to-point protocol
MTBF: Mean time between failures
NAK: Negative acknowledge
NCR: No-carbon-required paper
ODBC: Open database connectivity
ODG: Optical dot gain
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PDG: Physical dot gain
pH: Potential of hydrogen
PLAR: Private-line auto ringdown
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PNP: Plug and play
PPTOP: Point-to-point tunneling protocol
QWERTY: Standard keyboard layout
RLP: Radio link protocol
SCSI: Small computer systems interface
SMS: (1) Short message service; (2) Storage management services
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TCF: Totally chlorine free (paper)
TMP: Thermomechanical paper pulp
USB: Universal serial bus
VON: Voice on/over the Net
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VXD: Virtual device driver
WORM: Write once, read many
ZM: Zoomed video
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Agate: (1) Body type measuring approximately 5 1/2 points. The agate is frequently used to specify the depth of newspaper advertising. Fourteen agate lines are equivalent to one column inch. (2) A polished stone tool used in bookbinding to burnish the edges of books after applying metal leaf.
Aliasing: A jagged or “staircase” effect in a raster image, caused by an insufficient number of image samples. See also: anti-aliasing.
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Alley: The spaces between tabular copy. It is occasionally referred to as column margins or columns. See also: gutter.